>> MAYER: Good morning. Thank you for joining
us here at the Computer History Museum. We’re so excited to be here within so many and surrounded
by so many wonderful pieces of computing history. And it’s an especially perfect backdrop for
today’s search event, which focuses on the future of search and the innovation that’s
happening in search. At Google, when we think about the future of search, we think about
four key elements: modes, media, language, and personalization. What do I mean about
each of these? Modes really refers to modalities. How do people search? Today, the predominant
mode is that people type keywords into desktop computers. When we look at the future of search,
we think they’ll be many more modalities. What happens with mobile phones? What happens
if you can talk to the search engine? What happens if you could give concepts or pictures
that could cue off of–the search results could cue off of? We’re really excited about
the fact that in the future there’ll be many different ways of searching. And when you
look at how search will grow in the future and change, we think these many different
modalities are really what will drive search forward and really grow with overall adoptions
to even greater numbers than we see today. On the flipside, there is media. Media is
what is appearing within the search results. And the Web, of course, has gotten very, very
rich; books, movies, news, local, maps, all on the Web. And so, our search results have
to mirror that same richness that we feel on the Web. So we’re constantly looking at
how can we make Google more comprehensive and more relevant with regard to media. So
it’s not just about 10 blue links; it’s about the best answers. Media also leads the next
piece, which is language. We really are working at Google to try and branch across languages,
break down the language barrier because this focus on language in translation is what unlocks
the Web. Today, we are able to translate from 51 different languages into all known pairs
of those 51 languages. And we have 173 local domains, because we really foresee a world
in the future where you can search and find your answer wherever they exist in the world,
whatever language it’s written in. And the final component that we see in the future
of search is personalization. We don’t know a lot about what the search engine will look
like 30 years from now, 50 years from now, and it’s because search changes so quickly
that we–it’s hard to actually pinpoint what that future looks like. But one thing we do
know is that the results would be more personalized. They’ll know what you are an expert in. They’ll
know who your friends with and where you’re located. And, ultimately, our results will
become more rich and more relevant to our users because of that personalization. And
there is a fifth component to the future of search, which is the rate of progress. There
has to be a consistent rate of innovation pushing us towards this future. And we’ve
always been a company that likes to launch early and often and iterate. And we’ve done
lots and lots of search features over the years. And in October, we released a new blog
series called “This We Can Search.” And “This We Can Search” chronicles each week all of
the new user visible features that appear in search. So, our users get to see the latest
and greatest, and they also get a sense of this pace that’s driving us towards the future
of search. And since October 2nd, in the past 67 days, we’ve actually launched 33 different
search innovations. So that’s one innovation every two days. And if you look at the innovations,
they include things like the new homepage, Flu Shot Finder, personalized search on mobile,
and they all fit neatly into these four categories of media, of personalization, modes, and languages.
And we’re really excited about this overall focus that we have on search, this rate of
innovation. And today’s event really drives us forward even further increasing that rate
of innovation and new features that we’re launching. Today’s event will focus mostly
on modes and media. And so, without further ado, I want to introduce our master of modalities
who’s driving our Mobile Innovation, vice president of engineering, Vic Gundotra.
>>GUNDOTRA: Well, thank you very much, Marissa. You know, I’m very excited to have a chance
today to speak to you about innovations in mobile search. But before I dive into those,
I’d like you to join me and just take a step back for a moment. Think about the technological
innovation that was so profound that it changed mankind. What comes to your mind? Maybe you
think of Gutenberg’s printing press. Maybe you think of the steam engine. Maybe you think
of electricity. And it’s true; those innovations really change the course of human history.
But what’s interesting is that at their outset, the full impact of those innovations was not
understood. You know, Gutenberg was broke within a few years. The first mass-produced
newspapers that came from Gutenberg’s printing press happened many, many decades later, or
who could have predicted that the steam engine would lead to the Industrial Revolution or
that the invention of electricity would one day lead to the Internet and to microwaves.
At Google, we argue that that same dynamic may be happening in the personal computer
space. You know, PCs are, depending on how you count, 27 to about 33 old. In other words,
we are just in the third decade of the personal computer revolution. And it may be that only
now have our eyes become open to what the possibilities may be. In fact at Google, we
see three major trends converging in combination with mobile phones that enable new scenarios
that absolutely excite us. Let me talk to you about those trends then I’ll get in and
show you some of those scenarios. Now, the first trend is Moore’s Law or computing. Now,
I am in my 40s. All I’ve ever known in my life is Moore’s Law. Ever since I was a kid
and I had electronic toys to the computers I used as a teenager, I knew one thing for
sure; that next year whatever device I have would be better, faster, cheaper. It’s the
ubiquitous, pervasive law we know as Moore’s Law. And it’s a powerful trend in computing.
That’s trend number one, computing. The second trend is far more recent. That is the trend
of connectivity. You know, think back just as recently as a decade and a half ago. Think
back to 1995. If someone came to you in 1995 and said, “Look, there’s a time that’s coming
that billions of devices, every device would be connected to every other device.” Would
you have believed that? You know, the more technical you are, the more cynical you likely
would have been. And, you know, if you think in 1995, the best file servers of the day,
things like Novell NetWare, you know, they connected a few thousand simultaneous connections
and the idea that you have billions of connections seemed a little bit absurd. Today, of course,
we take it for granted. The Internet has happened. You don’t even bat an eye when someone next
to you takes out their cell phone and controls their TiVo at home. It is an amazing change,
this change of connectivity that has swept the world. Computing, connectivity–and the
third trend is the most recent, and that is the emergence of powerful clouds. Now, when
I say cloud, I mean huge amounts of compute resources that programmers have at their disposal,
data centers the sizes of football fields that host massive amounts of computational
power and the ability to manipulate huge data models. When you combine these three things:
computing, connectivity, and the cloud, and then you think about what’s happening with
mobile devices, you get something very, very interesting. Let’s talk about mobile devices.
Let me go grab a mobile device here. This is an Android device, common Smartphone. And
you think about something like this, it’s got built-in sensors. It’s got a camera. It’s
got a GPS chip. It’s got a speaker. It’s got maybe an accelerometer. You know, by themselves,
these sensors are not that extraordinary. Some of you may say, “So what? This camera
isn’t very special. My Nikon or Canon camera from 10 years ago surpasses this in quality.”
And you could be right. Or the microphone–what’s the big deal about the microphone? You know,
the microphone I use in my church or synagogue, much better than this microphone. But not
when you compare this in the context of computing, connectivity, and the cloud. You see, when
you take that camera, and you connect it to the cloud, it becomes an eye. That microphone
connected to a cloud becomes an ear. And in fact, what we’re going to show you this morning
is innovations that are the combinations of those three trends and mobile phones that
allow you for the first time to do powerful new things including search by sight, search
by location, and search by voice. Let’s begin with search by voice. Now, some of you may
remember that it was about a year ago that we introduced Google–Google Voice Search
available for the iPhone in the Google Mobile App. And during 2009, we worked very, very
hard to improve the accuracy and the recognition rates of that voice recognition. You might
be surprised at how good it’s gotten. Let me show you. This is Google Mobile App, and
it’s running this Voice Recognition Software, Google Search by Voice. You simply bring it
to your ear and speak a query. So, let me try a query, something like pictures of Barack
Obama with the French President at the G8 Summit. You know, unlikely that you would
ever type in a query that long. And there you have it. Isn’t that amazing? Now, as impressive
as that query is, it becomes even more impressive when you think about what just happened. What
happened was we took your voice file, the digital representation of your expression,
sent it up to the Google Cloud where it was broken down into phrases, sentences, words,
and those were compared against the billions of daily Google queries we get. A probability
score was associated with all the potential textual representations, the textual expressions
of what we thought you said, they were ranked, and then the best ones were sent back to your
phone all within what you saw here in fractions of a second. Really amazing, amazing work.
Now, we’ve done more than just work on the improvement on accuracy of Voice Search. We’ve
also been adding languages. You heard Marissa talked about our focus on languages. Last
month, we announced Mandarin Voice Search. Now, think about our customers in China, our
users in China, who have struggled to enter in with a notoriously difficult Mandarin character
set on their mobile phones now being able use just voice. Let me do a demo for you.
Same app, Google Mobile App available from the App Store, except in this case, I’m going
to show you the Mandarin version of this particular app. Okay. There you go. So you see that it’s
in Mandarin and I’ll try my only Mandarin query that I’m capable of doing. [SPEAKS FOREIGN
LANGUAGE] That was McDonald’s in Beijing. Let’s see if we get it. There we go, all the
McDonald’s in Beijing.
Okay. Now, I’m very happy to announce that today, and joining English and Mandarin, we
have a new language we’ll be supporting and that is Japanese. Now, instead of me trying
to say McDonald’s in Japanese, we thought we’d have a native Japanese speaker, Toshi–Toshi,
please come up on stage–and do a real demonstration for you. So, Toshi, thank you very much. So,
you’re going to do a query. What kind of query are you going to do?
>>TOSHI: So, my first query, I want to search for the pictures of Kyoto’s Kiyomizu Temple.
>>GUNDOTRA: Okay. Let’s see you do this query.>>TOSHI: Sure. Okay. Here’s the screen. [SPEAKS
FOREIGN LANGUAGE].>>GUNDOTRA: Fantastic. Okay. So, that was
a great query. But why don’t you try a query, a longer query, a query that you probably
wouldn’t type? And why don’t you tell us what it is before you do it.
>>TOSHI: I want to try Voice Search for my favorite restaurant around the Google’s Tokyo
office.>>GUNDOTRA: Okay. Your favorite restaurant
by the Google office in Tokyo. Okay.>>TOSHI: So, I’m going to search for the
By Address. [SPEAKS FOREIGN LANGUAGE].>>GUNDOTRA: Oh, wow. Fantastic. Thank you.
Thank you, Toshi. You can see why I’ve–when I practiced trying to learn that, I gave up.
So, thank you, Toshi. You know, as I mentioned at the beginning, we really do get the sense
that we are just now beginning to sense the possibilities. In fact, our dreams at Google
go way beyond what you just saw–as Marissa mentioned earlier, in addition to voice recognition,
Google also has massive investments in translation from one language to another. In fact, we
have huge compute infrastructure for translation. Imagine the following scenario. Imagine that
you could speak to your phone in one language that Google could recognize what you said,
take the text of what you said, feed it to our translation infrastructure, translate
it to a different language, and have it then come back to the device using the text-to-speech
engine on the device and have it play back in a different language. In other words, it
would be almost a real-time interpreter. Would that be great? Let me show you a demo. What
we’re about to show you is a technological demonstration of a capability that we hope
to deliver in 2010. There is a technological preview. Let me try something. Hi. My name
is Vic. Can you show me where the nearest hospital is? English up to the cloud, translated
back into Spanish.>>[SPEAKS FOREIGN LANGUAGE].
>>GUNDOTRA: Okay. You know what? I apologize, Randy. I didn’t have this thing plugged in.
Let me try this again, okay? Hi. Can you show me where the nearest hospital is? English
up to the cloud, back to Spanish, back down to the device.
>>[SPEAKS FOREIGN LANGUAGE].>>GUNDOTRA: Okay. Now, that’s just an early
indication. You can imagine us working to get latency down even faster. We also demonstrated
English, Mandarin, Japanese. In 2010, you will see us dramatically accelerate our efforts
and support many, many more languages. Our goal at Google is nothing less than being
able to support all the major languages of the world, okay? So that’s Search by Voice.
Let’s talk about location. You know, we were reviewing some market research from Japan
and we found the research quite surprising. What the research showed was that, in Japan,
consumers were holding onto their cell phones 24 hours a day and keeping them as close as
one meter away. And we thought, “Wow, those Japanese, they must really love their cell
phones to have that cell phone with them all the time.” Until I went home, fell asleep,
rolled over on my bed, looked at my night stand, and right on my night stand was my
phone. In fact, we’re not that different than the Japanese. You know, I suspect, if you
look around now, either you have the phone in your hand, it’s in your purse, it’s in
your bag, you know, the phone, because its location is likely your location has become
the most intimate and the most personal of all personal computers. At Google, in our
engineering teams, we want to make location a first-class component of all the products
we built. Why? Well, it speaks to the personalization point that Marissa talked about earlier. In
addition to personalizing the results we bring back to you, we can also just deliver them
faster. For example, we included My Location in Google Mobile Maps. Maybe some of you use
Google Mobile Maps. Our data shows that, on average, we save about nine seconds per user
because when you open up Google Mobile Maps, we know your location and render that location
immediately. But we want to do so much more than that. In fact, let me show you some of
the things that we’re doing to use location in other properties. How many of you use Google
Suggest? Okay. Lots of hands go up. Our data shows that over 40% of mobile queries that
come into Google are queries that result from a user selecting a suggest item. Now, how
could that be improved if we use location? Let me show you. I have two separate iPhones
here that I’m going to do this demonstration on. Let me just get them started up. And in
both cases, I’m going to show you a future version of the Google.com homepage that supports
this suggest. Okay. So that’s one. And that’s two. Let me just make sure you can both see
them. Now, we’ve done something here, we’ve hard coded, we’ve hard coded this phone to
believe, as you can see that it’s in Boston. And we’ve hard coded this phone to believe
it’s in San Francisco, okay? So, let’s start doing a query. How about RE, what would you
expect? Well, there comes the suggest options, Red Sox, Red Sox schedule, which makes total
sense in Boston. Let’s do exactly that same query in San Francisco. And what do you think
will show up? RE, REI, one of the most popular retailers in San Francisco. Isn’t that great?
Customize suggest based on location. Of course, there’s other things we can do, for example,
product search. This is the time people do lots and lots of shopping. But maybe you’re
like me. Maybe, in addition to just shopping online, there are times that you wish you
could actually know if that product happened to be available locally or could we at Google
combine your location with inventory feeds from retailers and tell you if that product
was available locally? That’s exactly what a future version of Google product search
will do. Let me do a search here for a product. How about something like a Canon Camera? How
about a Canon EOS Camera? I’ll do a search here. Let’s wait for those results to come
back. Now, you’ll know that the top two results have something very special. You see that
blue dot? That blue dot says those two products are in stock nearby. And if you select in
stock nearby in combination with our partners who are sharing inventory data with us, you
can see that Best Buy has this camera 1.3 miles away and it’s available at Sears which
is about 7 miles away, isn’t that great? All right, let’s go back, let’s go back and talk
about the Google.com homepage again. Have you ever asked yourself, what’s nearby now?
Maybe you get to an event a little early. You have a few minutes to spare; you’re in
a new place. And you go, I wonder what’s nearby? That simple query is very hard to answer.
You know, think about how you might solve it today. Maybe, you go into your car. Maybe,
you’ll use your car’s navigation system and go through the rigid categories they provide.
Maybe you’ll type in an address onto a map; but query is so difficult because your location
is the query. And what we’re going to do is make location a first-class object right within
the Google.com homepage. In fact, let me show you a brand new feature called “Near Me Now”
on Google.com mobile. Right there, “Near Me Now” and I simply select “Near Me Now” and
look at that, it knows I’m at the Computer History Museum and shows me other categories
of areas or interests that I might have to go search for. But we can even do better than
that; what we really want to do is take your location, send it up to the Google cloud,
have the Google cloud reverse GO code your lat-long location, understand the business
or place of interest that you’re at, look around you for all other relevant places,
rank them appropriately at–for their popularity and then send those back to you, back down
to your phone in a fraction of a second. That would tell me what’s nearby. But watch what
will happen; I’m going to click that down arrow right by explore right here and boom.
There you go, all the places right around the Computer History Museum. In this case,
we’ve not only answered the question of what’s near, nearby now, but we’ve also, if you look
at the ratings, also answered the question of what’s good nearby. Now, of course, we
realize that you may do the search on more than just the Google.com homepage. And I’m
very happy to announce that, today, we have a new version available today in the Android
marketplace, a Google Mobile Maps for Android. And among the many features that are in this
new product is also this–is this What’s Nearby feature. You simply go wherever that you want
to look at, any place on the map; it doesn’t have to be any particular place. You just
long press. So I’ll just long press, select, and then, say what’s nearby, and exactly that
same feature is available today on Google Mobile Maps for Android. Now, let me switch
and talk about search by site. You know, of the human senses, sight or vision is considered
the most complex. It’s estimated that up to two-thirds of our brain, of the human cortex,
is involved in the processing of visual images. And it’s widely believed by scientists that
if we could figure out how the human brain processes images, that would be a monumental
step forward in understanding in how the brain actually works. Well, I’m very happy to announce
a new product available in Google Labs today, a product called Google Labs, I’m sorry, product
called Google Goggles which represents our earliest efforts in the field of computer
vision. Google Goggles allows you simply to take a picture of an item and use that picture,
that picture of whatever you take as the query. Now, before I demonstrate the product, let
me tell you a story on how I use the product. Obviously, we “Googlers” test product before
we make them available. And I was doing my job testing the product. I had a friend, a
couple, call me. They were scheduled to come over for dinner, but they called and said
they were running late. They were stuck in traffic. In fact, they were stuck for traffic
for one hour. So, when the doorbell rang and I opened the door, both the husband and wife
had to use the bathroom desperately. And as I opened the door, they said, “Sorry Vic,
we’ve been stuck in traffic, we need to go use the restroom.” I very happily pointed
to where the restroom was and the wife handed me the gift that they have brought, a bottle
of wine. And she said, “While we’re in the bathroom, open this bottle of wine.” Well,
I did what you would probably do. I pulled out Google Goggles and took a picture of the
bottle of wine. Maybe, you’ve ever wondered, is this bottle of wine any good? Oh, you know,
I got a result sent back; it said that the wine has hints of apricot and hibiscus blossom,
just then the door opened and my friend came out of the restroom. Of course, she’s not
a “Googler,” so I took the confidential product we were testing and I put it away. She said,
“Please, please pour the wine,” and so, I poured the wine. And she said, “It’s my favorite
wine, you know, what do you think of it?” And I tasted it and I said, “It’s got hints
of apricot and hibiscus blossom.” She was blown away. They thought I had a great wine
palate. I’ll be honest with you, I don’t even know what hibiscus blossom is. You know, let
me show you a demonstration of that. I happen to have that bottle of wine, not that exact
one, but the same bottle. Let’s try it, let’s take a picture. Let’s launch Google Goggles
and let’s see what happens. Now, the lighting conditions are less than optimal. I’m getting
a huge amount of glare, so I don’t know how this is going to work, but we will try. So,
let’s see here, you–let me take an image, a picture of this bottle and then we’ll bring
it over here. Okay, oops, well, it helps if I actually get an image, so sorry, I moved
that. Let’s try that again. One more time, and I will try to hold my hand steady; surprising,
holding my hand steady wasn’t a problem during rehearsal. Okay, and then you see, it’s scanning,
attempting to recognize what it sees here and, in this case, it has gotten some of the
bristling items. And, of course, as you use it and as we get more and more data, it’ll
become more and more accurate; pretty exciting work. Now, you may think, “Well, Vic, I’m
not going to take a picture of a wine bottle, if that’s all the Google Goggles does.” Well,
it does a lot more. It recognizes things like CD covers, movie posters, books, barcodes,
lots and lots of categories. You know, for example, imagine that you’re traveling in
Japan and you come across this landmark. Now, you don’t speak Japanese, but you do know
that’s a famous landmark. How would you go about and getting any information about that?
Well, using Google Goggles, you could just take a picture of it, and ask Google to help
you. Let’s try that. Let me come over here and let me try to take a picture of that landmark.
I’ll pretend I was there. Okay, I got a picture. Let’s come back over here and show you the
results. It’s analyzing and there we go. How about that? It accurately recognizes that
landmark. Now, once again, it’s incredibly impressive when you understand what’s going
on. In this case, those images are being screened to the Google or send to the Google Service,
the Google clouds. There, our vision algorithms are analyzing the image and looking for objects
that it can detect. Those objects have signatures that are created and then those signatures
are matched up against an index that has over a billion images in it. The best matches are
ranked and then sent back down to your device all in a fraction of a second, showing you
really the power of devices that are connected to the cloud. Now, some of you may ask, “Why
is this in labs? Why is this product in Google Labs and available today?” Well, we put it
in Labs for two reasons; one, because of the nascent nature of computer vision. We really
are just at the beginning here, and the technology is just getting under way. The second reason
is because of the scope of our ambitions. Google Goggles today works very well on certain
types of objects in certain categories. But it is our goal to be able to visually identify
any image over time. Today, you have to frame a picture and snap a photo; but in the future,
you will simply be able to point to it, as simple, as easy as pointing your finger at
an object. And we’ll be able to treat it like a mouse pointer for the real world. Of course,
we’re a long way from that today. But today marks the beginning of that visual search
journey. And we strongly encourage those of you with Android phones to download that product,
give us feedback and help us really grow. So let me wrap up here. You know, we really
are at the beginning of the beginning. You know, if you think about the mobile announcements
that we talked about today, everything from Japanese voice search to a new version of
Google Mobile Maps that allows you to search nearby or the upcoming changes to the Google.com
homepage or even something like Google Goggles, all of these are powerful demonstrations of
what happens when you take a sensor-rich device and you connect it to the cloud. Yes, it could
be that we are really at the cusp of an entire new computing era, an era where devices will
help us explore the world around us that devices can understand our own speech or help us understand
others, devices that may even augment our own sense of sight by helping us see further.
We hope you’re as excited as we are about these mobile announcements. While it is just
the beginning, the possibilities ahead inspire us. So, thank you. Marissa, please.
>>MAYER: So, you can see, search engines that understand where you are in the world,
search engines that understand you when you talk to them, even search engines with eyes.
These are the things that are going to change the interface for search fundamentally, as
we move forward. The other thing that will fundamentally change the interface for search
is media. Remember, media is what we refer to in terms of the richness of the Web. And
the way that richness needs to be reflected on the results page. And it’s not obvious,
but media is really fundamentally a relevance problem. Can you find the right information?
Can you rank it the right way? And if you look at the way media has evolved inside Google
Search over the past 11 years, it’s pretty interesting. We started with just Web sites,
URLs, a list of 10 new URLs that you needed to be ranked. Then we evolved towards universal
search bringing books, news, video, local information, images, products, blogs, all
onto the results page. But there again, there’s all kinds of interesting relevance questions:
When should those genres appear at all? Where should they appear? Which one from those genres?
Which item from those genres should be surfaced on the results page? It’s a huge relevance
challenge. And then think about the Web today; the Web is hugely participatory. It’s hugely
fresh. I heard this morning that in Tahoe, people woke up to two feet of snow. And I’ve
heard that some of you were caught on it on your way home; I’m jealous. But what’s interesting
is was it two feet, was it one foot, was the snow blowing or not? And there are some official
sources for that, but they don’t always get it right. Yet, there are user updates out
there that do get it right. But how do you find them? And how you cut through all of
the updates that aren’t relevant? That’s why we have one of our foremost relevancy experts
here in the company to talk about some of the challenges with media and relevancy. Please
help me welcome Amit Singhal, Google fellow.>>SINGHAL: Thank you very much, Marissa.
So, we are here at this wonderful Computer History Museum today. And before I get to
today’s big announcement, it’s just fitting that we take a moment and talk about the history
of information flow. Now, I’ve worked in the field of search for almost 20 years now. And
what we are going to announce today is one of the most exciting things I have seen in
my career. But let me first take a moment and talk about how information has flown over
century. So thousands of years back, people got most of their information by word of mouth.
Sitting around campfires, from their tribe, from their village, kids would walk up to
the village elders who have all the knowledge and say, “Hey, grandpa, should I eat those
beans?” And the grandpa would say, “No, no, no, them are poisonous, okay?” And the kids
who listen eventually became grandpas and pass that knowledge along generations. And
it took generations for knowledge to get from one point to another point geographically.
And that was clearly not fast enough. Then Guttenberg invented the movable-type printing
press and this process of information dissemination was parallelized. An author could write a
book, thousands of books can be–books can be printed. And then, they were sent on horsebacks
and by boats to around the world. Village elders around the world now had the power
of that knowledge. And believe it not, some–up to some 20, 30 years back, that was the primary
mode of information transfer. And even though great strides were made in the physical limits–in
the printing technology and transportation technology, the physical limits of printing
technology and transportation technology still made it so that for information to get from
an author to their–to the consumers took weeks, months and sometimes even years and
that was clearly not fast enough. And then came the Internet. And what I’m showing you
here is one of the early Google servers that are displayed here at the museum. And, now,
suddenly, the world changed because billions and billions of documents were available to
millions and millions of users just through the Internet, through search engines. And
that was a great revolution. In the early days of Google when I got here nine years
back, we used to call that information every month, and we would put up a new index every
month. People will call it Google Dance. And, clearly, a month was not fast enough. And
then, the Web world, and then we started calling every few days then every day, and then, every
few hours to now when we actually can call every few minutes. But, clearly, in today’s
world, that’s not fast enough. In today’s world, the world is producing information
from around the globe every second by tweeting, by posting other updates, by creating Web
pages, by writing blogs; you name it. Information is being created at a pace I have never seen
before. And in this information environment, seconds matter. Let me just use a metaphor
to explain my point, the old metaphor of a library. Imagine a library with billions and
billions of books. The librarian, just when the librarian understood the billions and
billions of books in his library, the librarian realizes that there are a hundred million
new books coming in every day. Now, the librarian finally figures out how to deal with a hundred
million new books arriving at his library every day so that he can tell the patrons
what they should look for. And just when he mastered that process, the librarian realizes
that there are a hundred million of people running around in his library, adding pages,
deleting pages, writing notes, adding things to books and guess what? If they didn’t find
the book on what they were looking for, they wrote 140-character note and handed it to
the librarian saying, “Not in your library.” And that’s what, that’s the information environment
today. And imagine in this library, a patron walks up to the librarian and says, “Hey,
I need to learn about President Obama.” And the librarian says, “You need that book, that
book, that article, that image, that speech, that video. And, oh, by the way, 17 people
just left me a note that President Obama has been talking to the Democrats in a special
session on Sunday about health care and, by the way, he’ll probably be in Oslo on Thursday
receiving Nobel Prize,” and so on and so forth. Now, imagine that librarian does all that
in under half a second without breaking a sweat. As of today, that’s what Google can
do. We are here today to announce Google Real Time Search. Google Real Time Search is Google’s relevance
technology meeting the real-time Web. Now, I can’t emphasize this enough–Marissa has
said this right now–relevance is the foundation of this product. It’s relevance, relevance,
relevance. There’s so much information being generated out there that getting to you relevant
information is the key to success of a product like this and that’s where we, as Google,
come in because for 11 years, that’s what we have done. Rather than talking about this
more, let me just show you, I have with me Dillon Casey, the product manager for this
product and Dillon, what’s happening out there?>>CASEY: Well, as you mentioned, we weren’t
the only one’s working yesterday, so one of the great things about this new product is
we can actually see what people are talking about in regards to Obama right now.
>>SINGHAL: So, Dillon types Obama into Google–Google Research Page comes in and, wow, look at that,
results just came in Real-Time, this page has come to life. Do you see that? This is results coming into Google’s Results
Page. As they are produced on the Real-Time Web out there, okay, our users will get their
results on the results page as they are produced in Real-Time out there. This is the first
time ever any search engine has integrated the Real Time Web into the results page. So,
let us show you a little more of this, Dillon, why don’t we click on the latest result links
out there. When Dillon clicks on the latest results link out there, he’s taken to a full
page of Real-Time Results as they are produced on the Web out there coming into this page,
you see there’s a twit that just came in. Here’s another Real-Time page that we called
from anwerstatyahoo.com seconds ago, another twit that just came in seconds ago and–hey,
Matt–man–what are you twitting out there? Our good friend Matt just twitted and, guess
what, it just showed up in Real-Time as he twitted. This is the power of Real-Time Search.
Now, let me just take three examples to demonstrate what you have seen out here. So we have been
testing this product internally with our Googlers and as we have been testing this product,
I have received good examples from my friends about how they are experiencing this product.
One time, one Googler had heard that GM’s car sales were finally stabilizing, so she
typed GM into Google and, of course, our results were right there–the biggest news of the
day was indeed that GM’s car sales have stabilized, however, she noticed this latest results for
GM section while she was searching and read that GM CEO Fritz Henderson had just stepped
down seconds ago, now this was the information she needed right then and this is the power
of Real-Time Search. Now, on the results page, as I said, this is the first time we are presenting
Real-Time Web on the results page–what you see in this Real-Time section is a scrollbar
to the right, so that if a Real-Time result just scrolled past you, you can go back, go
forward, in addition, what you see here is–seconds ago, we had called an article from Business
Insider and that was presented to the Googler and there was also an update from Twitter.com,
a twit from Twitter.com talking about Mr. Henderson stepping down. Now, what you observe
here is this is the whole Real-Time Web; this is comprehensive Real-Time Web, with twits,
with news articles, with blogs and so on and so forth. Let me take another example. One
of the Googlers was searching for Bank of America, and, of course, our results were
very relevant but the key part there was that the Real Time Web was buzzing about how Bank
of America had decided to re-pay its TARP loan and all those results started showing
up in this latest results section that I’ve been talking about; but if you click on the
latest result for Bank of America, as Dillon did for the query Obama to take you to the
second page, you are taken to this full page of Real-Time results and what you notice here
is this special new link that we are launching today under our search options. We are very
happy to launch this new search option called the latest results, which are available to
you by clicking through with the latest result section or opening the search options on the
top left of the result page and then clicking at this new feature. And once you click on
this new feature, you are given information from the Real-Time Web, the comprehensive
Real-Time Web from Twitter, from Wall Street Journal, from a Website, the Loop21.com, and
so on and so forth–comprehensive Real-Time Web results coming to Google’s results page
in Real-Time. Now, let me take a third important example, one of the Googlers was visiting
home for Thanksgiving break in Maryland and wanted to get H1N1 vaccine and heard–had
heard that his whole high school was administering H1N1 vaccine, so he typed H1N1 vaccine Arundel,
the high school’s name, and was taken to the result page, which were very relevant results
saying “Free vaccine to be distributed at schools.” So, very fresh results around Thanksgiving
telling the Googler that vaccines will be free and available at this high school but
the Googler already knew that. He wanted to know how long the lines were, what else is
happening. So the Googler clicked on this show options link that I just talked about
and, having clicked on that, got the new options panel and on this options panel, we are very
happy to announce today that we are adding a new update’s link and by click on–by clicking
on this–this updates link, you will get all the twits and other updates coming into Google
system in Real-Time. In this particular case, when the Googler clicked at this update’s
link, the Googler got one very, very relevant twit saying that the high school had run out
of vaccines–we saved him a trip and he was totally impressed. Now, for such hyper-local
queries, we are–maybe one person is twitting on their cell phone or very few people are
saying something, Real-Time Search becomes incredibly powerful because it shows you exactly
what you need in your geography when you need it. This was one single twit and it became
available to that Googler right on Google’s page. So why I don’t show you this page live.
Hey, Dillon, what’s happening out there man?>>CASEY: Well, actually I hate to admit,
I’ve been up here kind of surfing around while you were talking but, you know, I don’t know
about you but I’m really excited about Google Goggles and I’ve been watching what people
are saying about it, it’s–it’s so cool. So I just put the query in and I hit search and
there’s people talking about it right now, in fact…
>>SINGHAL: Wow, look at that. Vic, dude, when did you announce it? How many minutes
back? And here we are on Google’s Result Page Real-Time Web brought to our users for something
you heard from Vic right now. Now, that’s incredibly exciting and, as you can see, we
can go into all the full Real-Time page and you can see the entire Real-Time Web for Google
Goggles being brought to our users right at Google’s results page and–and the page that
we have been talking about after that. Hey, Dillon–hey, man, what are you doing? We are
in the middle of the most important launch of the year and you’re playing with your cell
phone, man? Grow up.>>CASEY: Right, sorry.
>>SINGHAL: What’s happening?>>CASEY: Sorry, Amit, a little guilty pleasure.
You know, I’ve been kind of following the Tiger story and it turns out this also works
on mobile. I’m getting updates from the Apps.>>SINGHAL: What? It does? Then why don’t
you share it with all of us?>>CASEY: Okay, forgive me but you can see
right here.>>SINGHAL: Wow, look at that. This is Google’s
Real Time Search on mobile phones. So we are very happy to announce today that Google’s
Real-Time Search is available on iPhone and Android and anywhere you are–you need your
information now, just pull out your Smartphone, type a query into Google.com and you will
get the Real-Time Web in your palm right away. And that’s the power of mobile Real-Time Search.
At this point, I am also happy to announce that our Google Trends page is coming out
of labs–it’s leaving labs, it’s graduating from labs. We are very happy. And we have
added to it this new hot topic section that Dillon is showing you right now. On the hot
topic section, you will see what the Real-Time Web is generating right now, what information
is coming into from the Real-Time Web into Google systems and, by clicking on one of
those queries, you will of course see Google’s Real-Time Search Results. In addition, we
have added a window down there where you can type your query and see Real-Time Search Results.
Now, before we go there, let me just say one thing, we are rolling the Google Real-Time
Search product over the next couple of days and over the next couple of days, some users
may not have access to this product as we roll the binary out, however, you can always
go to this new google.com/trends page and by clicking on one of the hot topics, you
will get to see Google’s Real-Time Results or you can type your own query into more hot
topics. So Bernanke’s speech is what’s happening?>>CASEY: Yeah, yeah. While you were giving
your speech, Bernanke just presented a huge, gigantic speech and the stock market went
up.>>SINGHAL: Wow, it happened right now?
>>CASEY: Yeah.>>SINGHAL: Man, I should call my broker.
What’s happening to my money now? Anyone knows? My broker is not here. So what you observed
here is this new google.com/trends page which will take you to our new feature right away.
Okay, so, we are all technologists here. I have been working in the field of search for
almost 20 years. We all love technology, you love technology and I would be cheating you
if I didn’t tell you what went into building a product like this. Let me just tell you,
we literally had to develop dozens of new technologies to make Google Real-Time Search
as relevant as it is; technologies like language models, we had to model whether a certain
twit was genuine information-carrying twit or was it just a weather buoy sitting out
there twitting automatic twits. We had to develop query fluctuation models. If queries
fluctuate, the volumes fluctuate at a certain rate, then something becomes eligible for
you to see on your results page. We had to–we had to develop the Real-Time content generation
fluctuation model. If there’s suddenly a lot of content about Bernanke’s speech or the
stock market, something just happened. Now, this is–these are some of the most exciting
technologies that we have developed to build a product like this. Today, we are processing
over a billion documents a day generated by the Real-Time Web out there and within seconds,
we have analyzed the documents and twits and updates and we have understood the documents
and twits and updates and within seconds we have seen a user query, which may have–which
we may have never seen before. We don’t–we haven’t seen one-third of the queries that
we will see today ever before. So you take documents that you’ve never seen before, you
take queries that you have never seen before and you merge them together and filter for
relevance and bring it to the users within seconds and that’s what Real-Time Search is
all about. Now, at Google, we talked about the four pillars of search: comprehensiveness,
relevance, user experience and speed. And let me tell you one thing; I’ve worked in
this field for a long time–I’ve worked at Google for nine years and as the information
world has exploded, as the amount of information at the level out there has exploded, we are
getting hundreds of millions of new items every hour, the importance of relevance has
gone through the roof. Everything is important. Comprehensiveness is important. User experience
is important. Speed is important. Indeed, relevance is important but as the amount of
information out there has grown, as much as it has much and it’s growing at the pace at
which it is growing, relevance has become the critical factor in building products like
this. Now, let me just recap of what we just talked about. So today we are very proud to
announce Real-Time Search, a new latest search option in the Google search options, a new
update search option in the Google search options, a mobile version of our Real-Time
Search and the new trends page living labs with a new hot topic section that would give
you Real-Time Results. And I’m incredibly proud of what we have built. As I study this–information
is now getting to you instead of–from in generations, instead of in years, instead
of in months, instead of in days, instead of in hours, in minutes, it’s getting to you
within seconds and I’m incredibly proud of what we have built but at Google, we are never
satisfied. It takes about one-tenth of a second for lights to go around the world and, at
Google, we will not be satisfied until that is the only barrier between you and your information.
Thank you. Let me hand it back to Marissa. Thank you, Dillon.
>>MAYER: Thanks. So the first time that updates have been integrated into the search results
and we have actually the most comprehensive set of updates, too. We’re so excited about
this product. With that said, we didn’t want to rest on those laurels. We actually have
two new exciting partner announcements. The first of those announcements is with Facebook.
Facebook will be providing us with the feed of updates from their public profile pages,
also known as Facebook Pages and these will be appearing in Google’s Real-Time Search.
The second new partner, we have to announce today is MySpace. MySpace will be providing
us with feed of updates from all of their users on any updates that are public and these
updates will also be appearing in Google’s Real-Time Search. We have support from our
partners here today. I want to thank Biz Stone and the–and the team from Twitter for being
here today and also Jason Hirschhorn from MySpace, the chief product officer from MySpace
and his team. Thank you very much for coming and supporting the launch today. Last year
on–in conclusion, last year on our tenth anniversary, we published a blog on the future
of search and that laid out the vision for modes, and media, and language, and personalization.
And I think when you look at today’s announcement–search engines that have eyes, search engines that
can understand you when you talk, search engines that know where you are and search engines
that know what is happening anywhere in the world and can bring it to you in Real-Time.
It’s amazing to see how far we’ve come on realizing that vision in just one short year.
And with that, I’d like to welcome Amit and Vic back to the stage and we’ll take some
questions. Thanks.>>BENNET: And we’re also going to take some
questions here in a second from online as well while we set up. And if folks have questions
here, feel free to step up. We have microphones just right here. But, we’re going to start
with an online question first that’s coming from The Guardian in UK. This is for you Vic.
We got to put you on the hot seat first. It says, “Given Google’s acquisition of Neven,
to what extent can Goggles recognize faces?”>>GUNDOTRA: It’s a great question. Hartmut
Neven is in the room, I believe. Hartmut, are you here? There he is. Hartmut Neven had
a company that we acquired and he is the leader of this particular project concurrently at
Google. His previous company did some pretty amazing work around voice–around face recognition.
And the technology that we built with Google Goggles is very general. Of the billions of
images in the index that we do recognize, “faces” is one of those objects. However,
for this particular product, we made the deliver product decision not to do facial recognition.
At Google, we deeply respect the user’s privacy, and we still want to work through issues around
user opt-in and control. And so while we have the underlying computer science technology
to do facial recognition, we decided to delay that until we have more safeguards in place.
>>BENNET: That’s great. And again, if folks have questions here, just go forward, put
up your hand. And if you could just introduce yourself, so that people who are listening
in online can know where the question is coming from.
>>TENAKA: Hi, this is Akito Tanaka from the NIKKEI. I had a question regarding the Real-Time
Search. What is the advertisement opportunity in that area?
>>SINGHAL: So, right now, we are concentrating on bringing the most value to our users with
all the wonderful partnerships that Marissa just announced, and our partnership with Twitter.
And I believe that this phase is very, very young. As time goes on, new models would develop,
and all the companies that we are talking about are experimenting with multiple models
of how to generate revenue from all this wonderful real-time information that the world is producing.
I think all the companies like Twitter and others have added tremendous value to the
world, because we can figure out what these key conditions are in Tahoe right now. And
I can figure out how the traffic is like in Bangalore right now. And you name it, right?
There’s so much information out there. And as long as the product brings value to users,
I think new models are recognizing and various of the revenue streams emerge. And you will
see a revolution in that space over the next few years.
>>WATERS: Rich Waters in the Financial Times. Can you tell us more about in Real-Time Search
how many sources you’re crawling? How often you’re crawling? Are you taking feeds from
Twitter and Facebook, and other places? And longer term, you know, how much real-time
information you can be able to run?>>SINGHAL: That’s a great question. So, we
are crawling a lot of content. As I said, right about a billion pages a day. We are
crawling everyday. We are crawling from many, many sources. We are going out to the web,
and we are crawling all those sources, all the good sources out there. Definitely, all
the new sources, but not just the new sources. If a company announces a new product into
the press release, yes we will get it. If a blogger writes a blog about something, yes
we will get it. And we will do that within seconds. So, we are crawling, we are casting
a very wide net. The key here is comprehensiveness of real-time information, and integration
with Google’s search results. Those are the two keys–those are the two key design principles
behind this product. And indeed, we are taking feeds from our partners, Twitter, and going
forward very soon from MySpace and Facebook. And we would like to get as much information
as there is out there via feeds or any other mechanism, because our objective is to build
the most comprehensive Real-Time Search out there.
>>MAYER: And I should also add that on our latest mode, we actually do have other update
providers, including FriendFeed, Jaiku, Identi.ca, and TWiT Army. And as Amit said, we’ll be
working to bring Facebook and MySpace into that functionality over the next few weeks.
>>BENNET: Well, we have further questions from here. Oh yeah, go ahead.
>>HELEN: Hi, Helen Malbay [PH] with the Financial Times Germany. What about availability of
Real-Time Search on your non-US site?>>SINGHAL: That’s another great question.
So, we at Google strongly believe in all of our products becoming international rapidly.
This first launch is available in all English speaking locales. That would be the UK, Canada,
India, Australia, and New Zealand, and so on and so forth. And very soon, some time
in Q1, we are planning on launching many new languages. So, this is one of our top priorities
in this project. Our first priority was launching it, stabilizing it, making of our infrastructure
and relevance work, because that, as you can imagine, has been a hard challenge. And as
I showed you with all the new technologies that we have had to develop, that was our
first focus: building a product that would bring value to the users. And going forward
very soon, we are going to rapidly internationalize this product.
>>BENNET: So, we’re going to take one more online question here. This is another one
for you, Amit, about relevance. How do you prevent spammers from taking advantage of
the Real-Time search results? This is from Steven Bivins [PH].
>>SINGHAL: This is, you know, this is something that I know something about having run Google
search for about nine years. We have the best systems in place to prevent gaming of the
system, okay? Our spam lead out here sitting with us, Matt Cutts. And Matt runs the best
spam prevention team that there is out there. And we have had experience with this for so
long, we have developed algorithms inside that can see what’s going to happen next and
counteract almost before it happens. Matt’s team has developed some of those algorithms.
And real-time is moving–for us, real-time is moving from minutes to seconds, and we
are already in the game of running the system that’s minutes fresh. And we do a great job.
You find Google results very useful that we called a few minutes back. And Matt and his
team and the rest of the team at Google are experts in this area. We know many things
about it, and that’s how our real-time product is already so relevant.
>>CURTIS: David Curtis. A quick question on the customization, are you going to be
able to integrate social memory counts so I can customize the prioritization of Real-Time
search results by the people who I care about? So in other words, using Facebook connect
or LinkedIn, or Twitter a lot to sort of prioritize or even let me selectively choose, like, the
real-time results that I wanted to deal with.>>SINGHAL: You are just picking questions
out of my mind. That’s so wonderful. We are very excited about what’s happening. And the
key thing that we are excited about is we are just getting started. You mix with this
real-time search all the key principles that Marissa talked about, and Vic talked about.
Localization, personalization, and now you have a real-time product that everyone would
like to use it. In addition, recently you have noticed we have been experimenting with
social search in our labs. Marissa launched Social Search a few weeks back. And that is
an angle of personalization where you see results from your social circle alongside
the most relevant results from Google. Now, you can just imagine when you merge these
multiple technologies that we have developed here from Real-Time Search to social search
to job location-based search, what you will get is a product that you would love, and
that’s coming very soon to a Google near you.>>BENNET: See, Glenn up here in the front?
>>GLENN: I’m really curious [indistinct]. Could you further expand on the distinction
between Facebook’s going to give you the public feeds, which the stuff that members are already
designated, is okay to be seen by anyone, and then MySpace is giving you all the feeds,
I mean instead of…>>MEYER: Right.
>>GLENN: So, that’s anything that a MySpace member will get, please.
>>MAYER: So, Facebook has a product called Facebook pages, which are special public profiles
for specific entities, their feed that they’re providing us will have the updates that come
from those pages. For MySpace, it covers all of their user’s profile pages and any update
that’s designated as public. So if I were a user on MySpace and I saw that my updates
could be public, those will all be coming to us in the feed.
>>GLENN: [INDISTINCT]>>MEYER: That’s right. So that users can
decide what they’d like to see offered by this feed to Google and then search and how
broad that they really want to share it on the social network, in general, by using the
privacy controls available on each of those networks.
>>MCCRACKEN: Harry McCracken with Technologizer. You talked about how you have these partnerships
with a bunch of major sources of real-time content. You need those relationships and
those feeds to do this or what would happen if there was something that people are excited
about that you did not have a relationship with?
>>MAYER: I think that overall our goal is always comprehensiveness. But our mission
is the world’s information making it universally accessible and useful. And we really do mean
the world’s information. As Amit can attest to, you get better results when you have more
items to choose from, when you can analyze them, understand how they relate to each other.
So the more comprehensive we can be, the better we can serve our users. And that’s why we’ve
had such a focus on making our real-time results that we’re launching today already the most
comprehensive available. And we’re taking that even further with the MySpace and Facebook
partnerships. In the future, if there was something else, obviously we’d want to partner
with and include those sources as well.>>BENNET: We have a question from Danny up
in the front here.>>DANNY: Can you go back and clarify with
Twitter what financial deals are there, if there are any, and then the same for Facebook
and MySpace. Are there ad deals that you’re paying for this stuff or is it just the goodness
of their hearts or what?>>MAYER: We cannot disclose the financial
details of any of the deals.>>DANNY: [INDISTINCT]
>>MAYER: I can’t. I’m sorry.>>DANNY: [INDISTINCT]. If we go back to MySpace,
we’ve got Murdoch saying that he wants you guys to pay him to carry his news results,
right? But then, with MySpace, either they’ve just decided to give you this stuff because
they think it make sense and that’s his company, and apparently that information is free for
them to hand out, or you’re actually paying for it. So, it seems reasonable to ask whether
or not somebody is getting something out of this financially. Even if you can’t do the
details, it’s either they’re doing it for free or they’re not doing it for free. Can’t
you give us that?>>MAYER: Yeah, I’m sorry, we can’t confirm.
>>SINGHAL: We don’t exclude any source, any source of real-time information we would really
like to have integrate it with our system. And we let our algorithms for relevance decide
what updates or tweets, all blogs, all news, all web pages to serve this to the user. So
at Google, we are all about comprehensiveness and we will accept all sources of real-time
information and we’ll build the most comprehensive real-time search.
>>But are those–I mean, are you applying the same relevance algorithms? You write the
algorithms, so you know what they can do. And are you applying the same algorithms you
applied to normal web search just on a faster–on a faster footing or how have you have to change
it?>>SINGHAL: So as I was talking about earlier,
we have had to develop at least a dozen new technologies to make Real-Time Search work
as well as it does, because clearly in Real-Time Search, you need to have models of information
fluctuation. As information fluctuates out there in the real-time world, all as information
fluctuates in our query screen you have to react to that. And clearly, those fluctuations
are useful for traditional web search. But for real-time search, they are just incredibly
critical. So, I wouldn’t say it’s exactly the same algorithm that we can use, because
to work with this amount and this base of information generation, you have to develop
these new technologies. And what we have developed, some of these are just amazing technologies,
right? I’ve work in this field so many years and I didn’t think we would develop these
technologies so fast at the rate that we did. So, I’m incredibly proud of how much relevance
we have brought to the product based on the technologies we have developed using our experience
with relevance.>>BENNET: So we’re going to take one more
question from online for Vic. The question comes from Luke Wilson with more–I don’t
know if it’s the Luke Wilson, but from a Luke Wilson–with more Android phones and possibly
even Google Android hardware, does Google intend to reduce support for non-Android devices?
>>GUNDOTRA: Absolutely not. You know, our desire is to reach our customers on whatever
platform they’re on. And today, there are a variety of smart phone platforms like the
iPhone in Apple is a strong partner of ours, like a BlackBerry, Nokia. At times, we choose
different priorities in terms of which one we do first. But it is our goal to reach as
many as possible based on the technical capabilities of that underlying platform.
>>BARAK: Hi, Sylvie Barak from Hexus. I wanted to know, first of all, do you feel that your
Real-Time Search will be the death of journalism? And second of all, everyone knows that knowledge
is power. Does that make Google the most powerful company in the world?
>>SINGHAL: So, let me answer it to the best of my ability. Your questions are clearly
very loaded. So, journalism has its role and it always will have that role. Information
is indeed power, and what you in this room are doing, are empowering the world, as we
speak, with information about what’s happening here right now. So, I can’t even think about
putting those two words together, death of journalism based on Real-Time Search, because
you bring so much value to the world that this value has to be brought to the world.
And regarding your second question, our goal at Google has always been to bring timely
information to our users. And clearly we are empowering our users with the information
that they need now. We have been in this business for 11 years. We get the information, we do
our special relevance work, and we bring it to our user. So, I think it’s all about user
empowerment. I personally have felt empowered many times when I had the knowledge in my
hand through Google and I walk into situations that I had to. So it’s all about user empowerment.
And Real-Time Search is the next step in that direction.
>>MAYER: Yeah, I will just add that, you know, our purpose is really around facilitation
and reference. Getting people to do their search and getting them off of our site and
on to where the information exists in its native form as quickly as possible. And so
from that, like I said, you take a little bit of exception with the question of we have
the information, we don’t. The web has information and we want to get the user’s back out to
the web as efficiently as possible.>>BENNET: It’s probably worth knowing too
that Google sends billions of clicks each month to news, publishers, and this will be
yet another channel through which to send those clicks. Yeah.
>>HELLER: Hi, Michael Heller. I’m with the Google Technology User Group. I just–my question
is around the integration of real-time results with the rest of Google results. I saw, the
latest within the web page. And I’m just wondering what your vision is for long term. From a
user perspective, how much does the user thinking about is something real time result versus
some other kind of result and where you’re trying to go in terms of that direction?
>>SINGHAL: Another great question. The power of our universal search is that users don’t
have to think about whether they should be searching here or there. They should be searching
in Google search box, and all information that is relevant to them at that moment should
surface on the search results. We have made great strives in universal search with integrating
books, videos, images, news, blogs, and so on and so forth into Google Search. We don’t
think of it as this search or that search. We think of it as Google Search. Whatever
needs to be seen by the user now should be integrated on the Google’s results page. And
Google Real-Time Search is just the newest feature of Google Universal Search because
this is the genre that’s very relevant in today’s web and we have just brought it right
to our users with our integration with Google Search.
>>MAYER: Yeah, I would just add one example there, which I think drives on how much of
a relevance problem this really is. So for example, think about when you’re searching
for a product. So, apparently, a few weeks ago there was a massive stroller recall, and
what’s nice is when we’re actually dog-fooding this, this what we call to using it internally,
when we’re dog-fooding Real-Time Search, we did search for that stroller and only did
you get places where you could go and buy it, but you also were alerted to the fact
that there are been a recall, which I would argue for users. That is a very important
piece of information. If you’re about to go and make that purchase, you want to know that
there’s been a major news issue with this or potentially a major safety issue with it.
And I think that that shows the power of the Real-Time Search. And in that case, that Tweet,
that news article is incredibly relevant, and that’s why we surface it on the same page
as our search results.>>Marissa, you just mentioned that it’s still
Google’s idea to get users as fast as they can to other pages on the web. We’ve seen
some changes though from Microsoft and Yahoo that’s in to think that creating pages from
information around the web is a better way to go and gives people answers. You also mentioned
answers. Can you give a sense of where Google could have lay ends on that kind of creating
user interface or sort of still having algorithm being the king?
>>MAYER: I think that our view is that we overall believe that the web thrives on openness.
And so, the reason that we have this amazingly rich set of data to search and provide on
our search results is because the web is open and there’s like a huge amount of participation
to say, “Oh, you now, we’ll develop the most authoritative page on this.” I think it’s
problematic, because it does make it a much more enclosed system and we want to be much
more inclusive. That said certainly as we evolve search, there comes a point when you
do want to be referring to things potentially more as entities. Now here’s a restaurant.
What can you tell me about it? Right? And we do that by offering heterogeneous search
results. So this will really allow you to see not only the canonical page for that restaurant,
but also reviews, et cetera. I think we’ll play with the user interface with that, but
again, the point is still that the best information, the richest information is out there on the
web. We want to get people there faster, but we don’t want to hold them on what we would
call the most authoritative page or host that page.
>>SHANKLAND: Yeah, this Stephen Shankland from CNET News. I appreciate your focus on
relevance and recency. But in my observation, a lot of times those things-—they don’t
necessarily go together. Do you have any way of putting truth into the equation? There’s
a lot time where–a lot of situations where time goes by and the truth seeps out. So,
is there a way that you can actually assure people that they’re not getting connected
to rumors and things that are potentially factually wrong very quickly?
>>SINGHAL: No, this is a very good question and a very, very tough scientific problem
that the research community is also thinking about and we are also thinking about. And
right now, a straightforward answer to your question is we emphasize quality and relevance.
And that often brings the truth out. I say often because there are maybe occasional chances
when the truth is somewhat grey and not black and white. In which case, it can be debated.
But it’s a very hard problem because language understanding is still an unsolved problem.
We have made great strides in language understanding at Google. However, it’s still an unsolved
problem. We are very excited about the algorithms we are developing to understand language,
but what you are talking about is, in some sense, the grand challenge for language understanding.
So, we are excited about the strides we have made but that’s our ultimate objective years
down the road to get to that point. And that’s why after having worked in the field for 20
years, I come into work every morning like a kid going to candy store, because I get
to work on all these things.>>MOORE: Patrick Moore.
>>GARY: I’m sorry. I’m speaking. This is Gary. I’m with SearchWise [PH]. Actually we
are hosting some Real-Time information on our Website. So, is there any way that we
can submit the channels to the Google Real-Time Search, you know, where the resource?
>>SINGHAL: Sure. Please, talk to Dillon, who’s sitting here after the event.
>>GUNDOTRA: Yup.>>GARY: That’s also a general question for
a lot of Real-Time hosting Websites.>>SINGHAL: Right.
>>MAYER: I think it make sense at some point to have a standard API and a standard feed
that we accept and I think we will be moving in that direction as we evolve the product.
>>GARY: Okay, thanks.>>PATRICK MOORE: Patrick Moore. One of the
questions that I’ve noticed come up on Twitter, yeah, I think it should be repeated is a lot
of energy and effort is spent on PageRank. What does this do in the Real-Time Search?
It seems like, you know, you got a real issue here, how are people going to deal with this
as PageRank impact the Real-Time Search results?>>SINGHAL: So, Page Rank is a very important
piece of our ranking relevance technology that we use for our entire Web search. And
PageRank is indeed one of the hundreds of factors that we use in our ranking system.
And for Real-Time Search, we have all those hundreds of factors. Some may not be as powerful
in the context of Real-Time Search, some maybe more powerful. In addition to Page Rank and
those numerous other signals, we have had to add these technologies that I talked about.
Like, language modeling, right? How do you model language that it actually is finding
good relevant information? And so, PageRank is always a very important piece of our technology
including Real-Time Search. We have just had to develop many new things to make Real-Time
Search as relevant as it is.>>MAYER: And I would add that Page Rank is
really about finding authoritative pages. One of the more fascinating things that we’ve
seen or we’re beginning to see inside some of the real-time data is authoritativeness
exist there as well and there are signals that indicated. So, for example, re-twits
and replies and the structure of how the people in that ecosystem relate to each other, you
can actually use some of our learnings from PageRank in order to develop a, say, you know,
an updates rank and/or an updater rank for the specific people who are posting. So, this
is something we’re beginning to experiment with. It was interesting to see that same
parallel where PageRank looks at links. You can actually look at the very mechanisms inside
of these updates streams and searches and in a sense authoritativeness in the same way.
>>BENNET: We’re going to take one more online question from Eric Wester from wikiHow, who’s
asking: If there’s an option to disable the scrolling feature, he says he realized there’s
a pause but what about disabling it all together?>>SINGHAL: So, we really have experimented
tremendously with this user interface for Real-Time Search. And based on early positive
and good feedback like this, we did introduce the “Pause” button. And after a lot of experimentation,
I think the current interface is serving its purpose of conveying to you the Real-Time
nature of your query and providing the Real-Time results. And all—we are always experimenting
with everything that we do, including user experience, not just for Real-Time Search,
but for everything else. And we would be working on the user experience for over the entire
search system going forward, clearly Real-Time Search is the new feature we are very excited
about, and we would do a lot more work in the user experience direction of Real-Time
Search going forward.>>MAYER: And I think we also have to acknowledge
this very early in the evolution of the feature, and we don’t know that this is exactly the
right user interface. It may ultimately change and so–and we also want to always to honor
our user’s preferences. So, if they have expressed a preference to us, we don’t want to later
say, “Well, hey, here’s a whole new way the user interface could work and how do we interpret
that option there.” A few years ago when we first put PDFs into our search results, we
had the PDFs somewhat imbalanced, never showing up too frequently. And lot’s of users mailed
it and said, “Can we—can I just turn off having PDFs in the search results?” And we
also said, “Actually, you know, bear with us. The relevance of PDFs will get much better.”
And sure enough, it did. And we didn’t want to have this sort of mechanism where you turn
it off and then we have to re-introduce it later once it was better. We actually think
that the Real-Time Search relevance is already very good, but that–we can anticipate changes
to these search results. So, a “Pause” was the right compromise.
>>KENNEDY: Nell Kennedy. I’m wondering about time to locate on the GeoSearch, can you talk
about your coverage for non-orbital sources of field location data worldwide through your
scanning MAC addresses and looking at cell towers right now? And have you done any–have
you done any work looking at how Galileo could possibly change how you do search internationally?
>>GUNDOTRA: When you say Geo Locate, you mean a feature like My Location?
>>KENNEDY: Correct.>>GUNDOTRA: Okay. So, our time to locate
varies depending upon the source of the geo data. So, on a cell phone, if it’s GPS data,
cell phones depending on make and model can sometimes take a very long time, up to 20
minutes to get their initial GPS fixed. In those cases, we fall back to using cell tower,
and if the phone has an A-GPS chip, A-GPS gives us assist to GPS. That assist comes
from using the unique identifier of the cell tower, and we’re able because of a very large
database to almost instantaneously give you a reasonably accurate fix until we can get
the true lat-long once the GPS kicks in. So, that gives you that very, very fast experience
in Google Mobile Maps.>>KENNEDY: And do you feel like you have
good coverage internationally for those types of location sources, other than cell–other
than GPS?>>GUNDOTRA: The coverage has grown by an
order of 92 this year. And, obviously, the more and more phones that carry Google Mobile
Maps increases our coverage. So, we’re very happy, most places internationally, there
are a few very rural areas that we continue to drive for a better coverage in. But the
rate of growth is very encouraging. They will have broad coverage.
>>KENNEDY: Will Google’s Real-Time Search API gets supported in the Google Search API
in the future? I would rather like see that in a long tail adaptation.
>>SINGHAL: So, that’s a great idea. We haven’t yet looked into the details of that. And I
assure you, we’ll be looking at the details of that going forward.
>>BENNET: Yeah, one more question online, which is just, when is all the stuff going
to be live both in the mobile front end and on the Web front?
>>GUNDOTRA: So, I’ll take the mobile front stuff. Live today is Japanese Voice Search.
Brand new in the Android marketplace is Google Mobile Maps Version 3.3. Or if it isn’t live
now, it will be live in the next few hours. And also, Google Goggles, as you saw from
the Twit, is already available in the Android marketplace. Some of the new innovations that
you saw on the Google homepage, like Near Me Now, those are in the coming weeks ahead.
We can’t exactly predict those dates because of some of the holidays, but it’s in the very
imminent, in the near future. Things like Product Search are probably a few more weeks
beyond that. But that gives you a timeline for everything we discussed except one thing,
that fascinating demo I showed where the devise was able to translate from English to Spanish.
That was a technology concept demo. You’ll see the first products from Google that start
to include that technology some time in Q1.>>SINGHAL: So, for Real-Time Search, we are
starting the rollout process today. By the end of the day, some percentage of Google
users would start seeing Real-Time Search. And in the coming days, we will complete that
rollout as our systems roll out to the various data centers that we have. For now, if you
want to access Real Time Search, please go to google.com/trends and you can click on
the “New Hot Topics” panel on the left, or type your query under that panel in the “New
Search” window we have added and you will get Google’s Real Time results now.
>>You don’t get at the Website [INDISTINCT]. SINGHAL: We can check that. We’ll make sure.
>>I have heard that…>>SINGHAL: No, I’m sure. You know, maybe
some of the binary we just did needed.>>[INDISTINCT] before that.
>>SINGHAL: Okay. We’ll check it right away. Someone’s checking it.
>>JONES: Bobby Jones from the Guardian, again. I wanted to ask Vic about the visual search.
You said there are a billion images already in the computer vision data. I’m just wondering
who–whether Google owns, like, the canonical encyclopedic entry of what that image is or
whether you determine what that is by, you now, a Web search algorithm. You know, is
the Empire State building determined by everyone on the Web saying it’s the Empire State building
or you deciding that’s what it is?>>GUNDOTRA: So I could give you a very compelling
answer but I would be remiss as the person sitting directly to your left is the engineering
lead behind it. And so, in this case, if you could hand over the microphone to Neven–no,
Hartmut. Hartmut will give you the answer.>>NEVEN: Actually, one of the most interesting
parts of our system is a technology called “Unsupervised Learning.” So, essentially,
the algorithms will go out and build a model for visual recognition in a completely unsupervised
memory based on photos we find. And then, a model, let’s say in your example, for the
Empire State building, will emerge as a reflection of what’s on the Web.
>>JONES: Okay. My follow-up question then was: Would it be possible to Google-bomb visual
search?>>NEVEN: In principle, yes, but, I mean,
let’s say, we have techniques to prevent things like this.
>>JONES: Okay.>>BENNET: So, I think we have time for just
a couple more questions. One over her in the back, yeah.
>>MACENA: So, currently–I’m Chris Macena. I’m sorry. You’re doing a lot with text-based
status updates. I’m curious if you’re looking to expand that to other types of activities
that people are doing on the Web that are being recorded through other types of social
networking services and systems, again, just beyond status updates.
>>SINGHAL: Indeed. We are very excited about what the future holds. Today, we are starting
our new Real-Time Search with text-based status updates and the rest of the Real-Time Web.
And we are learning about how to do relevance in this world and we have done a very good
job of getting you relevant real-time results. As time progresses, we have image search technology,
we have video search technology, and we will be accepting all those forms of real-time
information. Some of the greatest information I’ve seen real-time is held in Twitpic, for
example, right? The cable broke on the Bay Bridge or something like that. There’s excellent
information there and, indeed, we will be integrating that going forward.
>>MAYER: As also, MySpace, one of our partners, is already looking at how they can take some
of the non-textual updates and make them available to us.
>>RIPER: Hi. I’m Van Riper. I am actually one of the co-leaders of the Silicon Valley
Google Technologies User Group. But in my day job, I work for Crillon (ph), which is
a product-based local search in real-time inventory look-up. So I was kind of curious–I
should be looking for another job. Could you say a little more about the availability of
the integration of product availability in your results that you mentioned early on before
all these real-time stuff? It’s just very exciting. Did you have a question? Early on–yeah,
early on demo and something about it being able to get real-time product availability,
product inventory.>>GUNDOTRA: Yes.
>>RIPER: And when you’re–when you then answered the follow-up question about availability
of stuff, you didn’t even mention that so I was just curious.
>>GUNDOTRA: Oh, I’m sorry. That will be integrated into our product search sometime in Q1. The
partners I demonstrated there were Sears and Best Buy. And, obviously, we’re working with
many other retail partners to get inventory data so that we can combine that with the
user’s location and deliver that experience.>>RIPER: Got it. Thanks.
>>GUNDOTRA: Yeah, sure.>>SINGHAL: Okay. Let me just take a moment.
And Dillon tells me that google.com/trends should be working now. Maybe we hit a minor
glitch so we will check that again. But please test it.
>>SINGLE: Ryan Single from Wire.com, again. Could you give a sense of what relationship
there is between the Real-Time Search Index and the Google Web Index, and whether one
is feeding into the other or not?>>SINGHAL: Another great architectural question.
Google Search Index over the years has evolved to be updated every few minutes, even like,
you know, within a few seconds. And Real-Time Search Index is just a continuation of that
technology that we have been building for many years now to do things like Google New
Search, or even calling the Web very fast. The new thing that we have added into this
is update receiving and indexing and merging with the index. And that has been a great
new technology because, at that end, we have built some of the technologies I showed you
for modeling how information is flowing in the system.
>>BENNET: So I think that’s all the time we have for now. We’ll stick around if you
all have questions here. And thanks so much for coming.
>>SINGHAL: Thank you. [END]