The Afghan province Uruzgan is marked by barren hills, difficult terrains and windy tracks. That is why it is sparsely populated area of Afghanistan. A man was lighting fire at night at the top of a hill in Tarinkot area of this province. The second day this man again lit fire at the hilltop. By it he was surely sending a secret signal of his presence and perhaps the signal had been received. Because third night he did not put on the fire. In the wee hours of the pitch dark night, a US helicopter came down. It dropped food bags, weapons and batteries. This man was most happy to get the batteries since they were to keep his cells phone operating. His enemies were chasing him so he could not afford to take the risk of getting his cell phone off. He was to travel far and wide in Afghanistan at the same time keeping in touch with the US Embassy in Pakistan. These were last days of the year 2001 and this man was Hamid Karzai. The American spy planes had traced him out and sent the required things. Why Hamid Karzai was here and the US helped him, and how he caused entry of Taliban into Pakistan? Why and from where Maulana Sufi Muhammad was taken into custody after 9/11? What important meeting took place between Gen. Musharraf and the US General in Islamabad? I am Faisal Warraich and I am going to show you all this in Dekho, Suno, Jano’s series on the History of Pakistan. It is Gambit Banda a small beautiful area on the Pak-Afghan border. Here a bearded elderly man riding a bicycle was calling the people for Jihad in Afghanistan to earn the Heavens. He was Maulana Sufi Muhammad who was taking hundreds to Mazar Sharif for fighting the Americans. Most of the youngsters in the age group of 12 to 25 years had joined him. Among them also included Burhan, the son of 55-year-old Faisal Rehman of Gambit Banda. Burhan who worked at tea-stall in Lahore was willing to join Sufi Muhammad for Jihad in Afghanistan. When Sufi Muhammad took these youth to Mazar Sharif, Taliban were retreating and fleeing the city. The city had been captured by the Americans and the Northern Alliance (NA). However in the war time, mostly the news are ambiguous that too reach the people after much delay. These young men went into a school building to wait for the call from the Taliban commander. However after some hours not Taliban but hundreds of Northern Alliance fighters surrounded the building. It dawned upon these youngsters that they had been surrounded by those they came to fight with. The grown-up among them wanted to reach a peace agreement with the Northern Alliance fighters. However enthusiasm of some youngsters, opposite stand by some elders and inexperience couple with… rigid attitude of Northern Alliance against Pakistan and Taliban resulted into indiscriminate firing. Now 700 Pakistanis were facing well armed NA fighters and 1000-pound heavy bombs from the US jets. The survival of Pakistani youth was out of question. So heavy bombardment killed many of them and the rest were captured by NA fighters badly wounded. The survived youth faced another bad stroke of life when they were imprisoned at the notorious Qilla Jangi jail. The Uzbek and the Tajik commanders divided the tender aged Pakistanis between them. The 16-year-old Burhan also went into the custody of a commander. He was subjected to such a treatment that could only be mourned and not described. His father, Faisal Rehman, learned the sad tale of his son from a person freed from the Afghan detention. Faisal also saw a picture of his son who had swollen wounds and wore tattered clothes in extreme cold. The father could say nothing except Allah, Allah while the mother got silent remembering her son. The released prisoner said the Afghan commander had demanded over $2000 for the release of Burhan. Faisal who was already living in sheer poverty, wanted to figure out how much $2000 are in local currency. After that he begun to save Rs10 daily which meant after 34 years he would have the required amount. A few days later media reported killing of over 700 prisoners including many Pakistanis, in Mazar Sharif jail. Faisal was unaware whether Burhan was dead or alive. Because last reports showed that Burhan had been given into the personal custody of a commander. Faisal begged the high-ups for the return of his son showing them his picture and pleading his innocence. The high-ups expressed sorrow over the plight of his son and showed helplessness to do anything. In other case, no central leadership existed in Afghanistan at that time to take up Burhan’s matter. Nothern Alliance that had occupied Kabul by that time, had no mercy for Pakistanis and the Taliban. People listen to the war stories with interest but war is in fact, marked by pains and it begets tragedies. It is noteworthy that Sufi Muhammad had come back to Pakistan a few days before the killing of Pakistanis. And the government had also taken Sufi Muhammad into custody. The like-minded of the Northern Alliance came out on the road from every side as it captured Kabul. The people thronged the cinema houses only two days after the Alliance had captured Kabul. The Taliban rule had ended after five years but now the question was, who would lead Afghanistan? And whether such a leader would be able to integrate Afghanistan and create national unity? This question was arguable in view of the unabated civil war in Afghanistan since its independence in 1919. And now the question was finding such a worthy leader who could keep all Afghans together. Afghanistan was divided into ethnic groups. Pushtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, and Uzbek 8%. There were some others as well but they were in insignificant number. Therefore it was certain that the leader would be from the majority group of the Pashtun. The Northern Alliance had helped the US in Afghanistan and most of their leaders were either Uzbeks or Tajiks. Pushtuns had no leader but they were sure to be effected if a Tajik or Uzbet would lead Afghanistan. Taliban were also Pushtun but not all Pushtuns were Taliban. There were some Pushtun like Hamid Karzai, Abdul Haq and Agha Gul Sherzai who were not related to Taliban. The US had to pick up Afghan ruler from among them and give some vital offices to the Northern Alliance. They all three had been living in Pakistan since the Taliban rule in Afghanistan. After the US attacked Afghanistan commander Abdul Haq riding a horse went to Afghanistan. He was a popular commander who wanted to gather all Afghan tribes under his banner. But Abdul Haq was captured by Taliban and they killed him. Agha Gul Sherzai was reputed for his corruption and looting so he too lost the chance to lead Afghanistan. Only Hamid Karzai was left. He assured the US of uniting the Pushtun and others against Taliban if given the rule. The American got the point. Then Karzai came to Pakistan and took a satellite phone from his room and left for Afghanistan on a motorbike. He moved every part of Afghanistan and under the US patronage campaigned for an alliance against Taliban. Karzai was also keeping the US embassy updated on his efforts. Karzai became more acceptable to the US as he held meetings with Afghan commanders and advisers. America and its allies on it decided to appoint Hamid Karzai interim President of Afghanistan. But the most important question was about the life of Karzai if he was to be made the President. Because he was on the motorcycle and Taliban were chasing him. Taliban wanted to kill Hamid Karzai which they could do anytime like they did to Abdul Haq. However, he was saved at the hand of Taliban but became target of a bomb dropped by the US B-52 plane. The US B-52 jet targetted Hamid Karzai and his American associates when they were fighting Taliban. The American termed it a friendly fire in which three American were killed and 30 other injured. Hamid Karzai sustained injuries in that attack and had a bare survival. This incident took place in the start of December of 2001. Hamid Karzia was airlifted from Afghanistan and flown to the US where he was treated and also had meetings. An interim set-up was established in Afghanistan under the United Nations on December 5,2001. Hamid Karzai was appointed Chairman of this set-up. Since meeting for this agreement was held in German City Bonn, therefore it was named “Bonn agreement.” An international army was also to be posted in Afghanistan under this agreement. The allied forces called, ISAF, were deployed in Afghanistan under the Bonn Agreement after the 9/11. Including the US, NATO, Turkey, UAE, Singapore and Jordan the troops of over 45 states had their foot… in Afghanistan under the same agreement. These forces set up over 700 bases in Afghanistan. Pakistan and Saudi Arabia were not part of the ISAF army. But ISAF partners and others all accepted Hamid Karzai as Chief Executive of Afghanistan. So Hamid Karzai reached such agreement with Taliban which displeased America greatly. Pakistan suffered more than Karzai due to this agreement. Taliban were fighting in the last stronghold Kandahar. But when Hamid Karzai, a Pushtun, was appointed… interim head of Afghanistan Taliban decided to surrender before him. Earlier, Taliban had offered surrender to the UN representative and the Pushtun leaders in Kunduz. They did so since they did not hope any good from America and the Northern Alliance. Gen. Musharraf and the UK had the same mind of treating those Taliban leniently who would surrender. So Taliban were allowed to leave Kunduz peacefully. Only foreigners were held back and put in a container where many of them died due to suffocation. Taliban had also laid down their arms in Amirabad and left the city. Perhaps in this background Hamid Karzai had struck the agreement with Taliban. He promised the Taliban to spare them in case they would lay down their arms. This agreement was reached in Shah Wali Kot so it was called, Shah Wali Kot agreement. The agreement was reported in the press throughout the world. This agreement came after a secret meeting with Mullah Omar which we have shown you in the last episode. We have already told you why Taliban eventually decided to lay down the arms. So in view of Karzai’s promise new head of Taliban, Mullah Obaidulah and other commanders surrendered. Karzai also made those governor of Zabul and Kandahar who were aware of the agreement with Taliban These governors were also implementing the Shah Wali Kot agreement. In the interest of peace it was a welcome development for Pakistan and Afghanistan. But! Only 2 days later, US Secretary of Defence Donald Rumsfeld rejected Karzai’s decision and the agreement. The wold media flashed cancellation of the agreement, the US annoyance and denial of pardon to Karzai over it. After this Hamid Karzai turned hostile to Taliban and began to arrest and kill them. As first step, the US replaced the governors of Zabul and Kandahar whom Karzai had appointed. You must know who were appointed in their place. In Zabul, where most of Taliban lived and Mullah Omar was hidden, a dead hostile of Taliban… and close associate of Gulbaden Hikmatyar, Hamidullah Tokhi was made the governor. In Kandahar, where Taliban had also taken shelter, the US removed Karzai’s appointee Mullah Naqib… and made Agha Gul Sherzai the governor. Agha was highly opposed to Hamid Karzia and the Taliban. Gul Sherzai who resided in Quetta was the same who was expelled from Taliban movement by Mullah Omar. Then Gul Sherzai was also running a moderate intelligence network for CIA in Afghanistan. So these governors became much active to search for Mullah Omar and Taliban in their respective province. On the other the tales of inhuman treatment in Mazar Sharif and Kunduz were echoing across Afghanistan. These two developments forced the anti-US fighters not to lay down the arms. So Taliban, Al-qaeda, Arab militants moved to Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and other states. Mostly the Pushtuns got settled in the area along Pak-Afghan border as they had sympathizers in Pakistan So these Pushtuns got settled in Balochistan and KPK crossing the porous Pak-Afghan border. Here they went underground with the help of their supporters and the sympathizers. Now Gen. Musharraf was to search them and check the creation of any new terrorists network in Pakistan. It was a difficult task. In this situation the US Generals engaged to prepare for attack on Iraq came to Pakistan. They were to hold an important meeting Gen. Musharraf while he had a serious complaint against them. Gen. Tommy Franks and Gen. Musharraf met in Islamabad in December 2001. The US Ambassador Wendy Chamberlin also joined in them in the meeting. Musharraf questioned the US bombing in Afghanistan that was pushing the militants into Pakistan. He said Pakistan would face big problems if they hid themselves in Valleys which were large in number. Gen. Franks had no answer to it. Gen. Musharraf told Gen. Franks if the US provided logistic support to fly fast 60,000 Pak soldiers… to the Afghah borders, Al-qaeda could be prevented from entering Pakistan. According to the US ambassador, Gen. Franks also had no answer to it. However, later General Musharraf was told by the US that “helicopters were in short supply.” In any case, American needed Gen. Musharraf’s help in Afghan war. So putting aside the matter of Musharraf’s dictatorship, the US began to give liberal financial aid to Pakistan. The repayment of Pakistan’s foreign debts was rescheduled from 10 years to 20 years. Then the US provided $600 million aid to lessen the budget deficit of Pakistan. It was in addition to the loan facility and aid from Japan and Europe. This all for the first time rose Pakistan’s foreign reserves to over $four billion. Now Gen. Musharraf had become financially sound and also had no US pressure for democracy in Pakistan. In this background Musharraf turned to promoting his political agenda. What was that agenda and what role NAB played therein? Which Al-qaeda leaders, from where and how they were arrested in Pakistan? Why India deployed 700,000 troops on the border with Pakistan? I will show you all this in the next episode of History of Pakistan. Meantime, you please suggest in the comments section the peaceful way to keep Pakistan peaceful. In this episode your were told about an incident relating to Sufi Muhammad. It is to remind that in 1994, Sufi Muhammad had also launched a movement for Shariah system in Malakand. He had captured a large part of the airport in that movement. Touch here to see this true and real story and here is the great story on the French Revolution…. and click here to know how Sultan Mehmed Fatih conquered Constantinople?